Dr. Toledo has been at St. Edward’s since 2015. He is a Bioinorganic chemist by training and additionally loves to explore questions about how people learn.  He maintains an active research group with undergraduate students where they explore how metalloenzymes catalyze incredible molecular transformations. The approach to do this is to synthesize small molecule analogues of these wonderful, natural chemical machines.  He and his students are specifically interested in exploring the role of metalloenzymes in disease. Their most recent NIH funded project is focused on oxygenase enzymes connected to carcinogenesis. The copper branch of the work focuses on the impact of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Dr. Toledo's teaching and learning scholarship explores the development of cognitiviely scaffolded learning objectives and alternative forms of grading to leverage the benefits of mastery learning.

He teaches Inorganic Chemistry I and laboratory, Inorganic Chemistry II and laboratory, Introduction to Research, and Chemisry Independent Study. His favorite course is general chemistry since he enjoys helping students take the first steps in seeing the beauty of the chemical world.

Academic Appointments

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, St. Edward's University, Aug 2019-Present

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, St. Edward's University, Aug 2015- May 2019

Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Texas Lutheran University, Feb 2015-May 2015

Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, Texas Lutheran University, 2009-Feb 2015

Year Started

Languages Spoken

Spanish and English


Ph.D. Bioinorganic Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA-2009

B.S Chemistry, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, TX-2004

Achievement & Involvement

Honors and Awards

Honors and Awards

2019-2020 School of Natural Sciences Dean's Excellence in Research Award

Organizations, Boards and Memberships

Co-Chair of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry Awards Committee

Organizations, Boards and Memberships

Co-Chair of the Division of Inorganic Chemistry Awards Committee

External Grants

Active Grants

Principal investigator of a National Institute of Health (NIH)-National Institutes of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) SCORE-2 grant. An expanded family of model complexes for Nickel Acireductone Dioxygenase (Ni-ARD): Towards elucidating the role of metal identity on reactivity and mechanism.
May 2019-April 2022. Amount: $330,602.00

Co-Principal Investigator NSF 17-541 Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program. “Maker Education and Community Building as Tools to Recruit, Develop, and Retain STEM Teachers”
July 2020-June 2025 Amount: $1,181,608.00

Publications & Articles


Toledo, S.; Yan Poon, P.C.; Gleaves, M.; Rees, J. Rogers, D. Kaminsky, W.; Kovacs, J. Increasing Reactivity by Incorporating π-Acceptor Ligands into Coordinatively Unsaturated Thiolate-Ligated Iron(II) Complexes. Inorganica Chimica Acta, 2021, 524,120422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ica.2021.120422

Blade, G.A. †; Parveen, R.; Jaimes, J.L. †; Ilustre, W. †; Saldaña,D. †; Ivan, D.A. †; Lynch,V.M. Cundari, T.R.; Toledo, S. “A family of structural and functional models for the active site of a unique dioxygenase: Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD)” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2020.

Healy, E. F.; Flores, R.†; Lynch, V.M.; Toledo, S. “Protein dynamics of [CuZn]superoxide dismutase (SOD1): How protein motions at the global and local levels impact the reactivity of SOD1” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 2020, 210, 111161.

Healy, E.; Roth-Rodriguez, A.; Toledo, S. "A model for gain of function in superoxide dismutase" Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 2020, 21, 100728.

Yan Poon, P.C., Dedushko, M.A., Sun, X., Yang, G., Toledo, S., Hayes, E.C., Johansen, A., Piquette, M.C., Rees, J.A., Stoll, S. and Rybak-Akimova, E., 2019. How Metal Ion Lewis Acidity and Steric Properties Influence the Barrier to Dioxygen Binding, Peroxo O–O Bond Cleavage, and Reactivity. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(38), pp.15046-15057.

Ivan, D.A*; Gremillion, A.J.*; Sanchez,A.*; Sanchez, S.* ;Lynch, V.A.; Toledo, S.A. “The First Structural Model for the Resting State of the Active Site of Nickel Acireductone Dioxygenase (Ni-ARD).” Inorg. Chem. Comm., 2018, 89C, 37-40.

*Denotes undergraduate student collaborators.

Toledo, S.A.; Dubas, J.M. A Learner-Centered Grading Method Focused on Reaching Proficiency with Course Learning Outcomes. J. Chem. Ed., 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.6b00651

Toledo, S.A.; Dubas, J.M. Encouraging Higher-Order Thinking in General Chemistry by Scaffolding Student Learning Using Marzano's Taxonomy.  J. Chem. Ed., 2016, 93, 64-69.

Toledo, S.A.; Dubas, J.M. Active Reading Documents (ARDs): A Tool to Facilitate Meaningful Learning Through Reading. College Teaching, 2015, 63, 27-33.

Dubas, J.M; Toledo, S.A. Taking Higher Order Thinking Seriously: Using Marzano’s Taxonomy in the Economics Classroom. International Review of Economics Education, 2016, 21, 12-20. 

Brines, L.M; Coggins, M.K.; Yan Poon, P.C.; Toledo, S.; Kaminsky, W.; Kirk, M.; Kovacs, J.A. “Water-Soluble Fe(II)-H2O Complex with a Weak O–H Bond Transfers a Hydrogen Atom via an Observable Monomeric Fe(III)-OH” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015, 137 (6), 2253–2264.

Coggins, M. K.; Toledo, S.; Kovacs, J. A. “Isolation and Characterization of a Dihydroxo-​Bridged Iron(III,​III)​(μ-​OH)​2 Diamond Core Derived from Dioxygen” Inorganic Chemistry, 2013, 52, 13325-13331.

Coggins, M. K.; Toledo S.; Shaffer, E.; Kaminsky W.; Shearer.; Kovacs, J.A. “Characterization and Dioxygen Reactivity of a New Series of Coordinatively Unsaturated Thiolate-Ligated Manganese(II) Complexes” Inorganic Chemistry,  2012, 51 (12), 6633–6644.














Please go to this link to see our most recent work at the Toledo lab

Department Group

School Group

School of Natural Sciences